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[251] However, there are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students. Israel does not have troops regularly deployed in Gaza, and it can only deploy such troops through heavy and difficult fighting. Here's a quick video on how we got here.Subscribe to our channel! The Supreme Court ruled that Israel has not exercised effective control over the Gaza Strip since 2005, and accordingly, it was no longer occupied. [259], In 2010, illiteracy among Gazan youth was less than 1%. In July 2007, after winning the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Hamas became the elected government. [128], According to Egyptian authorities, the Army of Islam, a U.S. designated "terrorist organization" based in the Gaza Strip, is responsible for training and supplying many militant organizations and jihadist members in Sinai. Only people with Palestinian ID, or foreign nationals, by exception, in certain categories, subject to Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in and out. [61] Israel controls the Gaza Strip's northern borders, as well as its territorial waters and airspace. Salah al-Din Road (also known as the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the main highway of the Gaza Strip and extends over 45 km (28 mi), spanning the entire length of the territory from the Rafah Crossing in the south to the Erez Crossing in the north. No Israeli soldiers were left there after the disengagement. The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, also known as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) is the second largest militant faction operating in the Gaza Strip. [186] Israel announced that it would allow the passage of civilian goods but not weapons and items that could be used for dual purposes. In late June 2008, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan declared the West Bank-based cabinet formed by Abbas as "the sole legitimate Palestinian government". [156] Yuval Shany also argues that Israel is probably not an occupying power in Gaza under international law, writing that "it is difficult to continue and regard Israel as the occupying power in Gaza under the traditional law of occupation," but that some legal theories might downplay the significance of the lack of an Israeli presence on the ground, and that Israel still continues to exercise some control over Gaza in parallel with the Palestinian Authority. The deadliest clashes occurred in the northern Gaza Strip, where General Muhammed Gharib, a senior commander of the Fatah-dominated Preventive Security Force, died when a rocket hit his home. In the course of this campaign, women who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed by Hamas activists, leading to hijabs being worn "just to avoid problems on the streets". Violence in Gaza. In April 2012, the issue was resolved as certain amounts of fuel were supplied with the involvement of the Red Cross, after the Palestinian Authority and Hamas reached a deal. A number of attempts were made to reconcile with the Fatah-led PA. An initial deal was reached in 2011 but did not bring about much change. "[269], According to Palestinian leaders in the Gaza Strip, the majority of medical aid delivered are "past their expiration date." Between 1994 and 1996, Israel built the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier to improve security in Israel. As the crisis broke out, Hamas sought to equip the Rafah terminal between Egypt and Gaza for fuel transfer, and refused to accept fuel to be delivered via the Kerem Shalom crossing between Israel and Gaza. It dismantled its settlements there. Gaza's direct exports of these products to Western markets, as opposed to Arab markets, was prohibited except through Israeli marketing vehicles, in order to assist Israeli citrus exports to the same markets. After the 2006 elections, fighting broke out between Fatah and Hamas, which Hamas won in the Gaza Strip on 14 June 2007. [222] The population became largely dependent on humanitarian assistance, primarily from UN agencies.[223]. I have seen a lot in my years as a journalist in Gaza, but this is the worst it's been. "[64] Human Rights Watch has advised the UN Human Rights Council that it (and others) consider Israel to be the occupying power of the Gaza Strip because Israel controls Gaza Strip's airspace, territorial waters and controls the movement of people or goods in or out of Gaza by air or sea. West Bank and Gaza Strip, two areas in the middle east; Palestinian territories, generally A,B and C areas within West Bank and Gaza Strip under control of the Palestinian Authority; State of Palestine, a partially recognized de jure sovereign UN observer state, de facto occupied by Israel; West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord The Gaza Strip is situated on a relatively flat coastal plain. long. The Palestinian Authority pays for the salaries of some of its civil servants. The Palestinian Authority demanded that Egypt deal only with the Authority in negotiations relating to borders. Israel largely provides for Gaza's water supply, electricity, and communications infrastructure. Nearly 2,000 people have lost their lives in a month of fighting, a majority of them civilians. "[163], As agreed between Israel and the Palestinian Authority in the Oslo Accords, Israel has exclusive control over the airspace. Exports are now down to 2% of 2007 levels. as overcrowded. According to the IDF, the spraying is intended "to prevent the concealment of IED's [Improvised Explosive Devices], and to disrupt and prevent the use of the area for destructive purposes. "[68] Israel, the United States, Canada, and the European Union have frozen all funds to the Palestinian government after the formation of a Hamas-controlled government after its democratic victory in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election. It pointed out that glass was prohibited[37][38][39][40][41] Under the blockade, Gaza is viewed by some critics as an "open-air prison",[42] although the claim is contested. [46] It was not recognized by any country outside the Arab League. The territory is governed by a pro-Palestine group known as Hamas, who are sometimes considered to be a terrorist group. [80], In May 2007, new fighting broke out between the factions. Despite plans under the Oslo Peace Accords to expand the port, it has been under a blockade since Hamas was elected as a majority party in the 2006 elections. In 2014, scores of homes in Rafah were destroyed for the buffer zone. In January 2007, fighting erupted between Hamas and Fatah. "[84] Associated Press reporter Ibrahim Barzak wrote an eyewitness account stating: "Today I have seen people shot before my eyes, I heard the screams of terrified women and children in a burning building, and I argued with gunmen who wanted to take over my home. "[159] Moshe Arens, a former Israeli diplomat who served as Foreign Minister and Defense Minister, likewise wrote that Gaza is a state as "it has a government, an army, a police force and courts that dispense justice of sorts. On 12 September 2005, the Israeli cabinet formally declared an end to Israeli military occupation of the Gaza Strip. [199], Under the long-term blockade, the Gaza Strip is often described as a "prison-camp or open air prison for its collective denizens". It was closed by Israel in October 2000. Abbas decrees first Palestinian elections in 15 years . Joshua Castellino, Kathleen A. Cavanaugh, Doug Suisman, Steven Simon, Glenn Robinson, C. Ross Anthony, Michael Schoenbaum (eds.). The closure has effectively cut off access for exports to traditional markets in Israel, transfers to the West Bank and has severely restricted imports. [265] The infant mortality rate is ranked 105th highest out of 224 countries and territories, at 16.55 deaths per 1,000 births. [65][66][67] The EU considers Gaza to be occupied. It is separated by Israel from Jerusalem, which holds deep religious and cultural significance for both Arabs and Jews, with both Israel and Palestinians claiming Jerusal… The blockades by Israel and Egypt extend to drastic reductions in necessary construction materials, medical supplies, and foodstuffs after intensive airstrikes on the city in December 2008. Israel captured the Gaza Strip from Egypt in the Six-Day War in 1967. Many suspected were tortured or shot in the legs. Both fell under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority,[10] but Gaza has since June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian fundamentalist militant Islamic organization[11] which came to power in free elections in 2006. Part of the territory is depopulated because of the imposition of buffer zones on both the Israeli and Egyptian borders.[168][169][170]. After the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty 1979, a 100-meter-wide buffer zone between Gaza and Egypt known as the Philadelphi Route was established. [126][127] Out of the approximately 15 main militant groups operating in the Sinai desert, the most dominant and active militant groups have close relations with the Gaza Strip. The southern border with Egypt continued to be the international border drawn in 1906 between the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.[47]. Or rolling, with both factions attacking vehicles and facilities of the Gaza Strip. [ ]! Popular Resistance Committees offering over 40 majors. [ 59 ] main agricultural products are olives, fruit... Border, under a religious guise, of the international border limits for the last decade, the entry goods! Stations and used it exclusively for their loss of property 's leader, is raised on irrigated lands and exported!, according to schedule it `` Israel 's Alcatraz '' and militant activity killed each other by Israeli territory,... Were issued All-Palestine passports result was that large numbers of farmers were out... 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