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Humanism was not an ideological programme but a body of literary knowledge and linguistic skill based on the "revival of good letters", which was a revival of a late-antique philology and grammar, This is how the word "humanist" was understood by contemporaries, and if scholars would agree to accept the word in this sense rather than in the sense in which it was used in the nineteenth century we might be … The daffodils are “golden” (4), and that is the only currency that brings him true “wealth” (18). Two American psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers paved the way for this new approach to understanding personality and improving the overall satisfaction of individuals. Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism _____ Below or just a few of the many literary theories or lenses that you can use to view and talk about art, literature, and culture. The dominant hegemony promotes the interests of the ruling classes, the residual hegemony defends the culture and belief system of the previous era, and the emergent hegemony shares revolutionary ideas that may later become the dominant hegemony. Humanists hold the following beliefs: Copyright 2018 AllPsych.com. In order to get a feel for Postcolonial theory at work in the literary realm, it will be most useful to apply it to at least two literary texts. Literature, for Marx, belongs to the superstructure (along with law, theology, politics, etc.). We seek to take responsibility for our decisions and conclusions, and this necessitates having control over them. Is the text a mirror of social values? Psych Central's Virtual Psychology Classroom. All feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality. Is it a form of propaganda for the ruling classes? This is a level of unconscious shared with other members of the human species comprising latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past. From a Marxist perspective, the poem can be considered both a criticism of materialistic attitudes and a reflection of the language of commodification. Humanism is a progressive philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms our ability and responsibility to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good. You don’t have to be a Marxist to do a Marxist analysis of literature. In literary theory, a Marxist interpretation reads the text as an expression of contemporary class struggle. Humanistic theory is reality based and to be psychologically healthy people must take responsibility for themselves, whether the person’s actions are positive or negative. Marx himself often treated literature as simple propaganda for the ruling classes. Using James Joyce's "Eveline" to emphasize these tenets will show how Liberal Humanism is seen in literary works. This theory was presented in satisfaction of a set of propositions previously enumerated (Maslow, 1943a) and later extended in his presentation of A Theory of Human Motivation (Maslow,… Marxist theory may seem far removed from Wordsworth’s poem “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.” Yet some surprising connections are still possible. Sigmund Freud argued that our lives are affected by our unconscious, and that our psychological and sexual wishes and desires are much affected by the formative influences of our childhood. Section 4 mentions A central assumption of humanism is that people act with intentionality and values. Wordsworth leaves behind human society, and finds his true self in solitude and in the company of the flowers. Marx called the economic conditions of life the base or infrastructure. 1. There has to be some reason for me to go see a James Bond movie even when the lifestyle depicted might be unattainable. We do this all the time. Yet why use the word “wealth,” and what is its significance? Gender issues play a part in every aspect of human production and experience, including the production and experience of literature, whether we are consciously aware of these issues or not. From this angle, the poem can easily seem escapist and reactionary. On the one hand, Wordsworth turns to nature to escape from the world of capitalism and commerce. The goal of life should always be to achieve personal growth and understanding. Are we not making too much of a few words in the poem? There is no area of thought that we are afraid to explore, to challenge, to question, or to doubt. Marx famously said, “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.” Our ability to think for ourselves is limited: our ideas are shaped by the material conditions of life. This is his most original and controversial contribution to personality theory. The basic ideas behind humanistic psychology are simple, some may say overly simple. To help you decide on a literary theory and to begin analyzing your chosen text, consider the questions presented below: Yet many later Marxists were unhappy with Marx’s somewhat naive characterization of literature as propaganda. Similarly, Karl Marx theorized that human beings are the product of their social and economic environment. How it relates is of course up for debate. We are unwilling to follow a doctrine or adopt a set of beliefs or values that doesn’t convince us personally. (Barry, 16). The ten tenets of liberal humanism are: Good literature is timeless, transcendent and speaks to what is constant in human nature Literary text contains its own meaning (not in subordinate reference to a sociopolitical, literary-historical, or autobiographical context) Deconstruction: Well, this is a theory that will be the most fascinating once you get hold of the basic tenets that Derrida tossed a random day in a seminar. Is it a form of propaganda for the ruling classes? Structural Linguistics By Nasrullah Mambrol on December 22, 2018 • ( 1). It tells you to deconstruct things to zero and look for the subconscious, the loopholes, the white patches and colour them with your imagination… As Simpson observes, in this system “a high rate of interest is assured and no one else can drive down prices because they cannot get into the market” (173). Indeed, Marxist critics such as Terry Eagleton have read the entire Romantic movement as causing a radical split between the private, subjective world of literature, and the public world of politics. BONUS: Ten Ways To Annoy Your English Prof. Accessing this subject requires a login. For instance, the Italian communist Antonio Gramsci used the concept of hegemony to describe the way in which ideology (a system of beliefs) is not simply oppressive and coercive, but also involves an element of consent. Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Sigmund Freud's theories of human emotions, childhood development, and the workings of the subconscious and unconscious. Marxism and Literary Theory By Nasrullah Mambrol on April 12, 2016 • ( 27). There is some truth to this. Horace insists that poetry serves the didactic purpose that Plato seeks, but provides pleasure at the same time; therefore in essence, Horace states that the two goals are not incompatible. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that much of our behaviour is determined by our genes. This is a valid objection, and a thorough Marxist analysis would have to provide further proof from the rest of Wordsworth’s poetry. The Basic Principles of Marxism – Critique Sociale. The studia humanitatis were held to be the equivalent of the Greek paideia. Literature thus reveals to us the spirit of the times, the issues that mattered to people. Their name was itself based on the Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero ’s concept of humanitas, an educational and political ideal that was the intellectual basis of the entire movement. The base includes everything from technology and raw materials to the social organization of the workplace. In literary theory, a Marxist interpretation reads the text as an expression of contemporary class struggle. In what follows we’ll first sketch out some broad principles of Marxist analysis before turning to one possible reading of Wordsworth’s poem “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.”. Humanistic Psychology gets its name from its belief in the basic goodness and respect of humankind. Horace mainly explains that the purpose of poetry, or literature in general is that it is ‘dulce et utile’, or sweet and useful. All rights reserved. These are the questions that … Kasun92. Marxism is a way of examining and critiquing the socio-economic conditions and class status. At further section, by looking at the perspectives of the 5 pioneering people (Simon, Selznick, Merton, Cyert and March) main principles of the neoclassical organization theory are presented one by one. Humanists also believe that it is necessary to study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan. Search. Post-Modernism (contemporary literature) 15 Terms. You might be a bit skeptical after reading this Marxist interpretation. When we treat traded goods as having an intrinsic value, we are guilty of fetishism. It somehow relates to the social and political conditions of the time. Literary theory refers to any We humanists think for ourselves as individuals. It somehow relates to the social and political conditions of the time. New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. first entered thevocabulary of intellectual discourse in the West during theRenaissance period when it was used to denote the revival ofinterest in the ancient writings of Greek and Roman philosophers Please enter your credentials below. In a special issue of The Elementary School Journal devoted to the topic of motivation, Stipek (1984) described a history in which, up until the 1970s “reinforcement theory dominated the motivation literature” (p. 1), with the general belief being that “a child exerts effort on academic assignments to obtain a reward (e.g., a high grade) and to avoid punishment (e.g., a low grade)” (p. 1). Online Psychology Tests: Screening, Self-Help, Chapter 10.2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Chapter 10.3: Carl Rogers & the Client-Centered Approach, Chapter 10.4: Research on Humanistic Theory, What I Learned Writing About 1,000+ Psychology Studies, Good Sex and Good Friendships Make People Happier With Being Single, Sleep and Resilience Can Form a Virtuous Cycle for Teens, Study Identifies Three Types of Low-Risk Drinkers. The first tenet is that "good literature is of timeless significance; it somehow transcends the limitation and peculiarities of the age it is written in, and thereby speaks to what is constant in human nature." In these cultural fantasies it is the aristocrat who comes to our rescue and saves us from imaginary villains that seek to destroy the status quo. Humanists hold the following beliefs: The present is the most important aspect of the person and therefore humanists focus on the here and now rather than looking at the past or … More recently, the cultural critic Raymond Williams suggested in Marxism and Literature (1977) that every historical time period has competing hegemonies. Humanism in Literary Theory Z. Nasrollahi Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Marxism is a materialist philosophy which tried to interpret the world based on the concrete, natural world around us and the society we live in. There is a kind of selfishness in the way Wordsworth uses the landscape for his own imaginative reverie. ... what is valued in literature is the silent showing and demonstrating of something, ... Liberal Humanism & Theory 18 Terms. Literary theory and criticism is in many ways linked to the humanities, some of which (philosophy, aesthetics) serve as its methodological basis; other branches of the humanities resemble literary theory and criticism in their goals and subject of investigation (folklore studies, art studies) or are related by a general humanistic orientation (history, psychology, sociology). 9. These are the questions that preoccupy Marxist literary critics. Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology. – American Humanist Association Humanism is a rational philosophy informed by science, inspired by art, and motivated by compassion. Marxism is a way of thinking critically, but it is not a “system”: “I have never established a ‘ socialist system ’”, Karl Marx wrote in his “Notes on Adolph Wagner's Lehrbuch der politischen Ökonomie ” (1880). The challenge, then, is to see how it is influenced by the economic base. Marx sometimes referred to the superstructure as consciousness, the way we think and look at reality. The term “human relations theory” reflects an attempt by bourgeois ideologists to pass off a program of measures as the humanization of labor that are of practical value for increasing profits. We have to have the latest gadget or toy, even though the value of these things is artificial and is driven by a kind superstitious faith in the idea that prices are natural. words literature review on the subject will be presented. As Simpson notes, the daffodils “provide a wealth that is metaphysical and not material” (169). In fact, one recent Marxist reading of the poem is found in David Simpson’s book Wordsworth, Commodification and Social Concern: The Poetics of Modernity. The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. To begin, let us use an example that lends itself very well to a basic and obvious Postcolonial reading, Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, which many of you have likely either read in high school or university, or will in the future. Its roots are based in existential psychology or the understanding and acceptance of one’s own existence and responsibility. 9 1.3 The Added Value of Human Security as an Operational Tool 9 Chapter 2 - How to Operationalise the Human Security Concept 2.1 Human Security Principles and Approach 12 2.2 Human Security Programme Phases 13 (ICPS) Rosemarie Rizzo Parse first published the theory in 1981 as the "Man-living-health" theory (ICPS) Humanists, look at the individual, and offer them tools to ascend. The human becoming theory posits quality of life from each person's own perspective as the goal of nursing practice. Is the text a mirror of social values? Start studying Ten tenets of liberal humanism. Before Saussure, language was studied in terms of the history of changes in individual words over time, or diachronically, and it was assumed … You don’t have to be a Marxist to do a Marxist analysis of literature. In fact, the human relations theory attempts to conceal or rationalize the profound social conflicts of … Literature is not simply a matter of personal expression or taste. Humanistic Theory according to Abraham Maslow. Humanism, a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. As Simpson points out, Wordsworth does place a value on the daffodils. The individual, merely by being human, posses an inherent worth. For instance, in a Feudal society, people loved chivalric romances, stories about knights who fight for honour and win their lady’s love. Wordsworth’s poem thus tries to escape the effects of capitalism, but cannot avoid its logic and language. 1.2 How does Human Security differ from Traditional Security, Human Development and Human Rights Approaches? In today’s capitalistic society, many people enjoy watching James Bond movies, which celebrate the glamorous lifestyle of the modern gentleman, the lady’s man who dresses in expensive clothes and drives fast cars. In the same way, Wordsworth personifies the daffodils as animate, living beings, and he ties his own happiness to theirs. Literature (and entertainment) is about much more than enjoyment or escapism: it is a manifestation of class struggle. It emphasized close reading, particularly of poetry, to discover how a work of literature functioned as a self-contained, self-referential aesthetic object.The movement derived its name from John Crowe Ransom's 1941 book The New Criticism. Simpson also reminds us that the word daffodil is but a different name for narcissus, a flower named after the mythological Narcissus, the young man who fell in love with himself. \"Literary theory,\" sometimes designated \"critical theory,\" or \"theory,\" and now undergoing a transformation into \"cultural theory\" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. Wordsworth writes, “I gazed–and gazed–but little thought / What wealth the show to me had brought” (17-18). Only through self-improvement and self-knowledge can one truly be happy. Actions may not be positive but this does not negate the value of the person. Literature is not simply a matter of personal expression or taste. Can literature challenge social norms? Introduction: about this book approaching theory stop and think - reviewing your study of literature to date. This economic base has a powerful effect on the superstructure, Marx’s term for society, culture, and the world of ideas. The economic language of the poem makes the poet a wealthy man. Registration confirmation will be emailed to you. A literary work is "sincere," meaning it is honest, true to experience and human nature, and thus can speak the truth about the human condition. Yet the poet is also the banker who pays himself with the riches of nature. What is now commonly referred to as Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, was presented by Maslow as "an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation" (Maslow, 1943b). We endow commodities with personalities and act as if our lives are incomplete without them. When conflict between war and peace arose in the early to mid 1960s, so to did the need to understand human nature. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable.As such, it is a theory that focuses on the macro-level of social structure, rather than the micro-level of everyday life. Structural linguistics was developed by Ferdinand de Saussure between 1913 and 1915, although his work wasn’t translated into English and popularized until the late 1950s. Nevertheless, even if we don’t accept the entire Marxist interpretation provided above, at least we can see what is possible. It is a simplistic theory that has become one of the most popular topics in self-help style books and man’s struggle for meaning has been and will always be a major part of literature and entertainment. Yet this move away from society ironically produces the very individualism that underpins capitalism. The present is the most important aspect of the person and therefore humanists focus on the here and now rather than looking at the past or trying to predict the future. Humanistic theory gave us an understandable way to look at man’s need for war for the sake of peace. I approach it from a biblical perspective, as in Corinthians, All things being permissable not all things beneficial. We feel free to inquire and then to agree or disagree with any given claim. Part 1 Theory before "theory" - liberal humanism: the history of English studies ten tenets of liberal-humanism literary theorising from Aristotle to Leavis - some key moments liberal humanism in practice selected reading the transition to "theory" some recurrent ideas in critical theory. A good Marxist reading draws our attention to details in the poem that we might have glossed over otherwise. The humanist is concerned with the fullest growth of the individual in the areas of love, fulfillment, self-worth, and autonomy. Many of the grand theories developed in the second half of the nineteenth century are deterministic in nature. How it relates is of course up for debate. Can literature challenge social norms? Like a commodity, the scene is best enjoyed in secret, in some private or internal space (the mind, the home). What is valuable in literature is that it shows us our true nature, and the true nature of society, without preaching (like point 6); it shows through drama, event, character, and conflict, rather than explaining, lecturing, or demonstrating. Literature increasingly becomes a private matter. Power is the key variable in the two main theories of gender oppression: psychoanalytic feminism and radical feminism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In addition, the adoration of the flowers is rather similar to what Marx called the fetishism of commodities (Simpson 172). 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