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This combined surface is gently convex dorsoventrally, and in dorsal view has a crescentic outline. The midline ridge extending ventrally from the postzygapophyses is increased in length, now reaching the top of the neural canal. (ML 433) are slightly expanded dorsoventrally relative to the rest of the process, while that of Dacentrurus armatus (NHMUK OR46013: [29]; fig 14H) is significantly expanded. The left postzygapophysis is steeply inclined, forming an angle of approximately 80 degrees with the horizontal, whereas the right postzygapophysis is oriented at an angle of approximately 40 degrees. The prezygapophyses are relatively and absolutely smaller, and are tongue-shaped rather than ovate (Fig 30F). These thickened areas are roughened, particularly medially, but it is not clear if only one or both of these articulated with the atlas. In anterior view the proximal three-quarters of the ulna is roughly triangular in shape with the apex being formed by a prominent medial process and the base of the triangle being formed by the lateral surface of the bone. Galecyon is reconstructed as a 5.2–7.9 kg terrestrial carnivore. In lateral view it is sub-trapezoidal. The spine has a sub-elliptical cross-section dorsally, becoming tear-drop shaped due to the presence of the anterior ridge ventrally. It is difficult, therefore, to correlate the quarry site with the excellent exposures of the Morrison Formation along the nearby Red Gulch scenic byway. The postzygapophyses have flat, laterally facing articular facets that expand slightly transversely towards their distal ends, before terminating in a bluntly rounded margin (Fig 6F). It is Y-shaped in anterior view with a complete bridge of bone enclosing the proximal end. In anterior view, a midline ridge extends from the base of the prezygapophyses to the dorsal margin of the neural canal (Fig 29A). Two unguals are preserved. In lateral view, the diapophyses are sub-triangular in cross-section with the apex pointing ventrally. In anterior view the neural canal is circular in outline (Fig 17A) and in posterior view it is teardrop-shaped with the apex pointing dorsally, as in the preceding cervicals (Fig 17B). The anterior and posterior articular surfaces of the centrum of Cd36 are sub-elliptical in outline (Fig 51A and 51B). The anterior margin of the parapophysis is continuous with the anterior articular facet of the centrum. Although it was probably never as prominent as the medial process, the anteroposterior width of this process has probably been reduced by anteroposterior compression and crushing, especially proximally. A subtle ridge arises from the lateral surface of the prezygapophysis and extends ventrally to merge with the anterior margin of the neural arch (Fig 29A). This contrasts with the condition in Dacentrurus armatus (NHMUK OR46013; [29]: fig 2A–D), where two probable posterior cervical centra are wider transversely across the articular facets than they are long anteroposteriorly. The neurocentral suture is not visible on either side, although on the left this area is covered with plaster. The anterior ridge is more prominent and forms the boundary between a medial concavity on the proximal part of the anterior surface of the shaft and a convex posterolateral surface. The basal region of the plate is crushed and the margins are damaged and incomplete. Dia, diapophysis; ns, neural spine; para, parapophysis; pozyg, postzygapophysis. The presence of visible neurocentral sutures on many of the cervical vertebrae indicates that sutural fusion may have just occurred or was occurring at the time of death, but had not advanced to the stage where the sutures were completely obliterated [48]. Prehistoric Museum, College of Eastern Utah, Price, U.S.A.; CM, Its dorsal surface bears a broad, shallow longitudinal groove continuous with the neural canal. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.s001. Laterally, the caudal rib is further reduced to a very low swelling (Fig 37C). The postcranial skeleton of Proterorhinus marmoratus with remarks on the relationships of the genus Proterorhinus (Teleostei: Gobiidae) Journal of Natural History: Vol. The cranium is a skull bone that covers the brain, as seen in the skeleton diagram. A distinct break in slope separates the ventral surface from the medial surface, forming a low ridge that divides the surface that was presumably embedded in the dermis from that which was free. Many bony features change in size and shape as the individual develops and matures; these features can be used as milestones in life history studies, and in some cases, they can be fairly accurate estimators of age. In lateral view, the ACPL is very faint and essentially absent. The left prezygapophysis is finger-like, projects anteriorly and extends anterior to the articular surface of the centrum (Fig 35C), similar to that of Gigantspinosaurus (ZDM 0019) and Huayangosaurus ([31]: fig 22), but in contrast to the condition in the mid-caudals of Loricatosaurus (NHMUK PV R3167; [29]: fig 17P), in which the prezygapophyses are much smaller and do not extend over the anterior articular facet. Prezygapophyses are stout processes that project dorsally from the anterolateral margins of the neural canal. The scapula blade forms an angle of approximately 90 degrees with the posterior margin of the proximal plate and emerges from the lower half of it (Fig 66A, 66B, 66E and 66F). The descending ridge merges with the triceps tubercle, a tear-drop shaped swelling, ventrally (Fig 67D). In Chungkingosaurus (CV 206; [34]: fig 92; [35]: fig 2b) there are five fused vertebrae comprising four sacrals and a dorsosacral. The acetabular region forms a sub-rectangular plate with a straight ventral margin, and curved posterior and dorsal margins in lateral view (Fig 71). The acetabular region is a transversely thin sheet that is thickest dorsally and anteriorly and thins posteriorly. Distally the anterior surface of the shaft bears a shallow concavity lying immediately dorsal to the articular condyles. In anterior view the astragalus is dorsoventrally tallest at a point approximately two thirds of the distance from its medial end and tapers laterally, forming a blunt lateral margin and giving it a sub-oval outline in anterior view. The transverse expansion at the top of the neural spine is better developed than on the preceding vertebrae (Fig 14C and 14D), but the neural spine is not as well developed as it is on Cv10 of Dacentrurus sp. In turn, this surface is separated from the lateral surface of the deltopectoral crest by a sharp and well-defined ridge, sometimes known as the descending, or triceps, ridge (Fig 67B and 67D). Yes The tuberculum is a more distinct finger-like process with a clear concavity separating it from the dorsal margin of the capitulum, a condition that is similar to that of Dr1. The lateral epicondyle has a sub-quadrate outline in distal view and is medially inset from the lateral margin of the distal end forming a distinct step (Fig 72F and 72L). Consequently, the notch between the diapophyses and the prezygapophyses is larger (Fig 30D). By contrast, the proximal expansion is slightly more expanded medially than laterally. The proximal articular surface has a straight posterior margin and continuously curved lateral, anterior and medial margins giving it a D-shaped outline in dorsal view. The discovery, therefore, of an essentially complete, relatively well-preserved individual of Stegosaurus stenops (NHMUK PV R36730; Fig 1) from the Red Canyon Ranch quarry, near Shell, Wyoming, U.S.A. in 2003, affords the opportunity to re-examine the anatomy of Stegosaurus in the light of a century’s worth of palaeontological discovery. The articular surface for the phalanges wraps from the ventral surface onto the ventral-most part of the anterior surface. They differ noticeably from the prezygapophyses of Cv7 in Dacentrurus sp. It is separated from the capitulum by an angle of around 80 degrees due to the anterior inclination of the capitulum. The plate is taller than long and the maximum anteroposterior dimension is positioned at a point about halfway up the plate. The rib is gently curved ventromedially along its entire length. The preacetabular process extends anteroventrally relative to this surface. The glenoid is very gently concave anteroposteriorly and is about two-thirds the length of the scapula contribution to the glenoid. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g031. Differs from all other stegosaurs in the following characteristics: (7) portion of the dentary anterior to the tooth row and posterior to the predentary edentulous; (8) dorsally elevated postzygapophysis of cervical vertebrae; (9) bifurcated summits of neural spines of the anterior and middle caudal vertebrae; (10) presence of dermal ossicles embedded in the skin on the underside of the cervical region. [2] considered that these represented 10 cervicals and 17 dorsals, although expressed uncertainty about his assignments to the cervical and dorsal column. Proximally the radius has a sub-triangular cross-section that becomes elliptical in the centre of the shaft and sub-rectangular at the distal end. The combination of reconstruction and shearing mean that some details of the anatomy are obscured: the positions of the parapophyses, the shapes of the anterior and posterior articular surfaces, the presence or absence of a ventral keel and concavities lateral to it, the presence or absence of a ridge on the lateral side of the centrum, and the orientation of the diapophyses cannot be determined. A small tubercle on the ventrolateral margin of the proximal plate represents the origin for the triceps. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g070. The plate is transversely compressed and thickest ventrally at its base. 3), while in Gigantspinosaurus (ZDM 0019; [37]; [27]: fig 132d) the diapophyses are not elevated and remain more or less horizontal along the dorsal series. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g007. A, 1; B, 2; C, 3; D, 4; E, 5; F, 6; G, 7; H, 8; I, 9; J, 10; K, 11; L, 12; M, 13. On the left side, there is some evidence that the fibula articulated with the astragalus, although due to distortion of the distal ends of the fibulae and of the astragali, this is difficult to determine. Here we describe the first known postcranial remains of the rare Wasatchian hyaenodontid Galecyon, based principally on a well-preserved partial skeleton from the Willwood Formation, Wyoming. In anterior view the prezygapophyses are orientated almost horizontally with their articular surfaces facing dorsally, as in D1 (Fig 19A and 19B). In Kentrosaurus (MB R.1930, R.1931; [36]: pl. In ventral view, a posterior chevron facet is present (Fig 36E). In contrast to metatarsal 2, it is not divided into ginglymi. The anteroposteriorly longest dimension is situated at a point within the basal third of the plate in lateral view. In Kentrosaurus (MB R.4800; [33]: pl. In lateral view the base of the neural arch bears a raised upwardly convex ridge forming a parabola-like structure. It is very similar in morphology to D4, differing only in the following respects. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The olecranon process of the ulna of NHMUK PV R36730 is relatively small: the development of a larger, more prominent process is thought to occur late in Stegosaurus development [43]. They are very similar to Dr3, except that the distal quarter of the rib shaft is transversely compressed to form a thin blade. Distally, it expands transversely to form to the distal expansion that bears the articular condyles. Dia, diapophysis; foss, fossa; ipzs, intraprezygapophyseal shelf; mr, midline ridge; nc, neural canal; not, notch; ns, neural spine; para, parapophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; plat, platform; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; pozyg, postzygapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; przyg, prezygapophysis; ri, ridge; vs, vertical sheet. ] ) are fused along their midline consolidated, with surfaces lightly skimmed plaster. Ankylosaurs, such as Euoplocephalus ( [ 38 ]: figs have a outline. Located 41 km to the portion of the plate has been positioned in its distal end of the postzygapophyses to. Foss, fossa ; ns, neural spine ; para, parapophysis ;,! On top not as well as histological evidence for shallow grooves on its dorsomedial surface PLOS Subject areas, here! Convex ( Fig 17B ) all skeletal elements ; these are referred Stegosaurus... To Cd40 and 41 ; the latter is an artifact due to location! 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Including three dorsosacrals ) are almost identical to Cd20, but larger and faces slightly dorsally in Huayangosaurus ( T7001.

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