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Messick’s unified model pulled the divergent strands in validity theory into a coherent framework, based on a broad view of the meaning of test scores and the values and consequences associated with the scores, and in doing so, he gave the consequences of score use a prominent role. (Messick 1975, p. 955), direct attention from the outset to vulnerabilities in the theory by formulating counterhypotheses, or plausible alternative interpretations of the observed consistencies. Certainly, prior to that time, there was discussion of the cultural fairness of a test and its appropriateness for some examinees, but it was the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s that gave social identity and political dimension to the topic. Fan, C. T., Lord, F. M., & Tucker, L. R. (1950). Messick, S. (2000). This organization is basically thematic, with each section examining ETS’s contributions to the development of aspects of validity theory, but it is also roughly chronological. Foundations of a new test theory. . Messick, S. (1988). One potentially large source of error in testing programs that employ multiple forms of a test (e.g., to promote security) is variability in content and statistical characteristics (particularly test difficulty) across different forms of the test, involving different samples of test items. 7, this volume), one way to demonstrate that two test forms are not equatable is to show that the equating functions used to link their scores are not invariant across different subpopulations of examinees. Cronbach, L. J. Rivera and Schmitt (1988) , for example, noted a difference in willingness to guess on the part of Hispanic test takers, especially Mexican Americans. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data. Scores on different forms or editions of a test that are supposed to be used interchangeably should be related to each other in the same way across different subpopulations. The once and future issues of validity: Assessing the meaning and consequences of measurement. Once the tests have been scored, the relationship between the examinees’ status as either masters or non-masters and their performance (i.e., pass or fail) is estimated based on the test. All About Assessment / A Misunderstood Grail. First, to the extent that consequences are relevant to the evaluation of a testing program (in terms of either validity or functional worth), both intended and unintended consequences are to be considered. 48-02 by Tucker (, Guessing can be a source of construct-irrelevant variance because noise is added to measurement precision when test takers answer correctly by guessing but actually know nothing about the answer (Wendler and Walker, Despite the apparent value of broadening the college-readiness construct beyond verbal and quantitative skills, the potential of such additional measures as a part of operational testing programs needed to be rediscovered from time to time. Mollenkopf, W. G. (1950). Fairness review. Much of this irrelevant variance would be essentially random, but some of it would be systematic in the sense that some test scores (e.g., those from a test site with an especially lenient or especially severe proctor) would be consistently too high or too low. Not logged in Item validity and response change under two different testing conditions. (1993). (pp. (1993). For example, as noted earlier, Dwyer et al. Bennett, R. E., & Gitomer, D. H. (2009). More than 60 years later, research is still somewhat contradictory and a definitive answer is still illusive. Driving test singapore. Standardized testing programs are designed to treat all test takers in the same way (or if accommodations are needed, in comparable ways), thereby eliminating as many sources of irrelevant variance as possible. As Messick (1989) put it, “a trait is a relatively enduring characteristic of a person—an attribute, process, or disposition—which is consistently manifested to an appropriate degree when relevant, despite considerable variation in the range of settings and circumstances” (p. 15). A general approach to confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. Relatively straightforward predictive validity studies were conducted at ETS from its earliest days, but ETS research also has addressed problems in broadening both the predictor and criterion spaces and in finding better ways of expressing the results of predictive validity studies. Furthermore, the composite of the multiple-choice and essay sections provided better prediction of college history grades than either section by itself for both genders. The study found that the rules of thumb used by test developers were generally accurate in rank ordering the item types from least to most time consuming but that the time needed for each question was higher than assumed by test developers. To the extent that it is possible to control the impact of test-taker characteristics that are irrelevant to the trait of interest, it may be possible to interpret the assessment scores as relatively pure measures of that focal trait (French 1951a, b, 1954, 1963) . The authors wish to thank Randy Bennett, Cathy Wendler, and James Carlson for comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of the chapter. Thus, evidence of construct meaning is not only essential for evaluating the import of testing consequences, it also helps determine where to look for testing consequences. Petersen, N. S. (2007).  In his view, various inferences made from test scores may require different types of evidence, but not different validities. Mislevy et al. “By making construct theories of the performance domain and of its key attributes more explicit, however, test construction and validation become more rational, and the supportive evidence sought becomes more attuned to the inferences made” (p. 64). (1957). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. quences of test use (Messick, 1989). Given specification of the network as a confirmatory factor model (and adequate data), the hypotheses inherent in the network can be checked by evaluating the fit of the model to the data. But these effects varied considerably depending on the ability level of the test taker. The combination of SAT scores with school rank was found to improve the prediction considerably (R = .67).” By 1949, enough predictive validity studies had been completed that results of 17 such studies could be summarized by Allen (1949) . Messick, S. (1956). By focusing on the traits as latent dimensions or factors or as some composite of more basic latent factors, and by embedding these factors within a web of statistical relationships, exploratory factor analysis provided a rudimentary version of the kind of nomological networks envisioned by Cronbach and Meehl (1955). (Eds.). Between 1920 and 1950, test scores came to be used to predict future outcomes and to estimate concurrent criteria that were of practical interest but were not easily observed, and the validity of such criterion-based interpretations came to be evaluated mainly in terms of how well the test scores predicted the criterion (Angoff 1988; Cronbach 1971; Kane 2012; Messick 1988, 1989; Zwick 2006) . Setting appropriate time limits on a computer-adaptive test (CAT) in which different students respond to different items can be especially problematic. Construct validity in psychological tests. Comment on Zwick, Bond, and Allen/Donogue. Important note: It is recommended that you take at least a few practical driving lessons in handling a manual vehicle before attempting the Final Theory Test. (1984). The Holland Occupational Themes is a theory of personality that focuses on career and vocational choice. In M. Wittrock & D. Wiley (Eds.). In the third edition of. Messick’s (1975, 1980, 1981a, 1988, 1989, 1995) treatment of validity is quite thorough and complex, but he consistently emphasizes a few basic conclusions. quences of test use (Messick, 1989). The remainder of this section concentrates on ETS’s contributions to the development of these methodologies, all of which seek to control threats to validity. Validity researchers then list a series of propositions that must be met if the interpretation is to be valid. The Basic Theory Test (BTT) result is valid for life while Final Theory Test (FTT) result is only valid for a period of two years from the date you pass. Frederiksen, N., Saunders, D. R., & Wand, B. The constraints imposed on the model are typically based on a priori theoretical assumptions, and the empirical data are used to check the hypotheses built into the models. Willingham, W., Lewis, C., Morgan, R., & Ramist, L. (1990). His work reflected an ongoing concern about how to differentiate between constructs (Jackson and Messick 1958; Stricker et al. The test items are designed to reflect the trait, and to the extent possible nothing else, and differences in test scores are assumed to reflect mainly differences in level of the trait. In general, it is important to evaluate how well testing programs work in practice, in the contexts in which they are operating (e.g., as the basis for decisions in employment, in academic selection, in placement, in licensure and certification). Validity refers to the incidence that how well a test or a research instrument is measuring what it is supposed to measure. Schrader, W. B. * Les auteurs tiennent à vivement remercier les professeurs Yvonne Giordano, Isabelle Royer, Régis Meissonier ainsi que les évaluateurs, pour leurs précieuses remarques. Linn, R. L. (1973). (2004a). An understanding of the trait (rudimentary as it might be) indicates the kinds of tasks or stimuli that could provide information about it. Analyses of the reliability and correlations of subscores can also provide guidance on whether it would be meaningful to report the subscores separately (Haberman 2008). He started as a full-time research psychologist at ETS in 1956, and he remained there until his death in 1998. Figure, The potential for test-taker fatigue to interfere with test scores was already a concern in 1948, as suggested by the title of ETS Research Memorandum No. Bennett, R. E. (2010). Third, the authors adjusted course grades for unreliability. 1979; French 1954; French et al.  These models can be categorized into two primary groups: classical models, which include several types of validity, and modern models, which present validity as a single construct. (p. 89). a. Linn, R. L., & Werts, C. (1971). (Willingham 1999, p. 220). Face validity is one of the most basic measures of validity. The new unified concept of validity interrelates these issues as fundamental aspects of a more comprehensive theory of construct validity. The perception of social attitudes. In C. Wyatt-Smith & J. Cumming (Eds.). The trait interpretation therefore entails expectations that assessments of the trait using different methods should agree with each other, and assessments of different traits using common methods should not agree too closely (Campbell 1960; Campbell and Fiske 1959) . Cite as. The real test bias: Influences of testing on teaching and learning. In elaborating on the evidential basis of test use, Messick (1989) discussed a number of particular kinds of score uses (e.g., employment, selection, licensure), and a number of issues that would need to be addressed (e.g., curriculum, instructional, or job relevance or representativeness; test–criterion relationships; the utility of criteria; and utility and fairness in decision making), rather than relying on what he called ad hoc targets. Population invariance and the equatability of tests: Basic theory and the linear case. At the second stage, domain modeling, the relationships between student characteristics, task characteristics, and situational variables are specified (Mislevy et al. Finally, the consequential basis of test use is the appraisal of both potential and actual social consequences of the applied testing. Acquiescence and desirability as response determinants on the MMPI. Constructs and their vicissitudes in educational and psychological measurement. Stricker, L. J., & Ward, W. C. (2004). 84–85). In addition, the model fit can be compared to the fit of alternate models that make different (perhaps stronger or weaker) assumptions. While much that is significant has been written about the theoretical need to correct for guessing, and about the psychological and instructional value of such a correction, the somewhat atomistic, or at least uncoordinated, research that has been done during the last 25 years fails to provide an answer that can be generalized widely. … To be valid—that is to serve its purpose adequately—a test must measure something with reasonably high reliability, and that something must be fairly closely related to the function it is used to measure. Ramist, L., Lewis, C., & McCamley-Jenkins, L. (1994). As noted, most of the early work on validity focused on trait interpretations and the prediction of desired outcomes. Popham, W. J. (Wohlhueter 1966, Abstract). Modern test theory grew out of efforts to characterize individuals in terms of traits, and essentially all psychometric theories (including classical test theory, generalizability theory, factor analysis, and item response theory) involve the estimation of traits of one kind or another. The penultimate section discusses fairness as a core validity concern. A paradox in the interpretation of group comparisons. Any mistakes made in scoring a test will contribute to irrelevant variance. As its name indicates, exploratory factor analysis does not propose strong constraints a priori; the analysis essentially partitions the observed-score variances by using statistical criteria to fit the model to the data. The third stage involves the development of a conceptual assessment framework that specifies the operational components of the test and the relationships among these components, including a student model, task models, and evidence models. Inferences in educational and psychological measurement are made from scores, … and scores are a function of subject responses. (Although the range restriction formulas were not new, they had not typically been employed in multicollege SAT validity studies.) The argument may call for a revision to the test, its administration protocol, or the theoretical constructs underlying the interpretations. Many of the fairness models were designed to adjust for inequities (defined in various ways) that were expected to result from the anticipated underprediction of performance. Methods used by test publishers to “debias” standardized tests. The process of test use inevitably places test scores both in a theoretical context of implied relevance and utility and in a value context of implied means and ends. Subsequently, Loevinger (1957) suggested that the construct model could provide a framework for all of validity, and Messick made this suggestion a reality. Second, Petersen and Novick (1976) pointed out some basic inconsistencies in the structures of the fairness models and suggested that it was necessary to explicitly incorporate assumptions about relative utilities of different outcomes for different test takers to resolve these discrepancies. Early research established the positive relationship between test length and reliability as well as the corresponding inverse relationship between test length and standard errors (Lord 1956, 1959) . A strong true score theory with applications. That research tradition also yielded methods for maximizing the reliability of composite measures (B.F. Green 1950) . This chapter reviews ETS’s contributions to validity theory and practice at various levels of generality, including overarching frameworks (Messick 1988, 1989), more targeted models for issues such as fairness, and particular analytic methodologies (e.g., reliability, equating, differential item functioning). 1950a, b; Mollenkopf 1951; Schultz 1952) , a number of studies went beyond that limited criterion. (2012). Tests of the same length do have the same standard error of measurement. Xi, X. Although the second-year validities were described as “fairly satisfactory,” they were substantially lower than the Year 1 correlations. The emphasis is on contributions to the theory of validity and, secondarily, on the practice of validation rather than on specific methodologies. (Eds.). Validating score interpretations and uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010. Third, the relationships between the precision of test scores and the number and characteristics of the items in the test can be used to develop tests that are more reliable without sacrificing relevance, thereby improving validity. Strong evidence in support of a single proposition does not lessen the requirement to support the other propositions. The very use of the term inability invokes constructs of attribute and process, whereas a content-valid interpretation would stick to the outcomes. Experimental validity refers to whether a test will be supported by statistical evidence and if the test or theory has any real-life application. In the 1970s and 1980s, Messick developed his unified framework for the construct validity of score interpretations and uses, and the argument-based approaches were developed at the turn of the century. (1969). Loevinger, J. Testing programs can have strong effects on individuals and institutions, both positive and negative (Frederiksen 1984) . Xi (2010) combined fairness and validity in a common framework by evaluating fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. On trinitarian doctrines of validity. For example, the second Research Bulletin published at ETS (i.e., Frederiksen 1948) focused on the prediction of first-year grades at a particular college. Holland, P. W., & Rubin, D. B. Markle, R., Olivera-Aguilar, M., Jackson, R., Noeth, R., & Robbins, S. (2013). The assumption was that cultural differences and differences in educational and social opportunities caused minority test takers to be less familiar with certain content and to be less adept at taking objective tests, and therefore the test scores were expected to underpredict performance in nontest settings (e.g., on the job, in various educational programs). In the absence of equating, form-to-form differences can introduce substantial errors, and equating procedures can reduce this source of error. Chapelle, C. A., Enright, M. K., & Jamieson, J. The IUA is intended to provide a fairly detailed specification of the reasoning inherent in the proposed interpretation and uses of the test scores. A “conditional” sense of fairness in assessment. validity has two aspects, which may be termed relevance and reliability. Specifically, the bottom and top quartiles in each department were defined in terms of both undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) and GRE scores. Diagnostic validity, on the other hand, is in the context of clinical medicine, and refers to the validity This kind of procedural fairness was supported by standardizing test administration, materials, scoring, and conditions of observation, as a way of eliminating favoritism or bias; this approach is illustrated in the civil service testing programs, in licensure programs, and in standardized educational tests (Porter 2003) . Thus, validity theory has gradually come to treat every important test-related issue as rele-vant to the validity concept and aims to integrate all these issues under a single header. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.). Tucker, L. R. (1949). Jöreskog, K. G. (1967). In its everyday sense, reliability is the “consistency” or “repeatability” of your measures. By definition, to the extent that testing materials or conditions are not standardized, they can vary from test taker to test taker and from one test administration to another, thereby introducing irrelevant variance, or bias, into test scores. Thought of as unobservable attributes and in terms of typical performance over some domain Gitomer, D. T. Olivera-Aguilar. Has a great many different “ validities. ” ( Willingham 1999, 2002, 2003a B... 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